“The Arc of the Moral Universe is Long, But it Bends Toward Justice.”

History is the unfolding of reason through time. Hegel

The Arc of the Moral Universe is Long, But it Bends Toward Justice.

Martin Luther King, Jr., reminded us that “the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.” Change takes a long time, but it does happen.


C) Socialist Economy

... communists can sum up their theory in the pithy phrase:

the abolition of private property.

Karl Marx, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848.

Karl Marx wrote about Communism 75 years after Adam Smith put forward his theories. He had observed capitalist industries in Europe and had concluded that they promoted a great deal of inequality. It was the person who owned the pin factory (to take Adam Smith's example) who gained from the increase of efficiency, not the people who actually made the pins, and Marx felt that this was no better than the unfair feudal system of landlords and serfs that capitalism was supposed to have replaced. Marx believed that if all property were owned in common, and each member of society had an equal share, that it would prevent the division of society into two classes: those who produce and those who gain from the sale of those products.

Because he knew that the rich would be unwilling to give up their privileges and their power, Marx theorized that a transition from a capitalist economy to a communist economy where there would be no private ownership might necessitate a violent revolution. His idea was that if the workers (the proletariat) organized they would be able to overthrow those in power and then they could set up a provisional government that would facilitate a gradual move to communism.

Both Adam Smith and Karl Marx believed that the purpose of the economy is to provide for the material needs of society and they both assumed that for the most part humans acted in their own self interest. Adam Smith's system protected an individual's freedom, and said that the common good could be attained by all individuals seeking their personal interest. Karl Marx's system provided for equality among individuals and relied on a strong central government to provide for the common good, at least during the transition to the ideal communist society.


The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book of political philosophy by American political scientist Francis Fukuyama which argues that with the ascendancy of Western liberal democracy—which occurred after the Cold War (1945–1991) and the dissolution of the Soviet Union (1991)—humanity has reached "not just ... the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such: That is, the end-point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government."[1] For the book, which is an expansion of his essay "The End of History?" (published in the summer of 1989, months before the fall of the Berlin Wall), Fukuyama draws upon the philosophies and ideologies of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx, who define human history as a linear progression, from one socioeconomic epoch to another.[1][2]